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In practice, a Holy Roman Emperor was only as strong as his army and alliances, including marriage alliances, made him.
Throughout its history, the position was viewed as a defender of the Roman Catholic faith. Until the Reformation , the Emperor elect imperator electus was required to be crowned by the Pope before assuming the imperial title.
Even after the Reformation , the elected Emperor always was a Roman Catholic. There were short periods in history when the electoral college was dominated by Protestants , and the electors usually voted in their own political interest.
Various royal houses of Europe, at different times, became hereditary holders of the title. In particular, the Habsburgs kept the longest possession of the title.
From the time of Constantine I 4th century , the Roman emperors had, with very few exceptions, taken on a role as promoters and defenders of Christianity [ citation needed ].
The title of Emperor became defunct in Western Europe after the deposition of Julius Nepos in AD , although the rulers of the barbarian kingdoms continued to recognize the Eastern Emperor at least nominally well into the 6th century; both the title and connection between Emperor and Church continued in the Eastern Roman Empire until , when it fell to the forces of the Ottoman Empire.
In the west, the title of Emperor Imperator was revived in , which also renewed ideas of imperial—papal cooperation.
As the power of the papacy grew during the Middle Ages, popes and emperors came into conflict over church administration. No pope appointed an emperor again until the coronation of Otto the Great in Under Otto and his successors, much of the former Carolingian kingdom of Eastern Francia fell within the boundaries of the Holy Roman Empire.
The various German princes elected one of their peers as King of the Germans , after which he would be crowned as emperor by the Pope.
The term sacrum i. The word Roman was a reflection of the principle of translatio imperii or in this case restauratio imperii that regarded the Germanic Holy Roman Emperors as the inheritors of the title of Emperor of the Western Roman Empire , despite the continued existence of the Eastern Roman Empire.
In German-language historiography, the term Römisch-deutscher Kaiser "Roman-German emperor" is used to distinguish the title from that of Roman Emperor on one hand, and that of German Emperor Deutscher Kaiser on the other.
The English term "Holy Roman Emperor" is a modern shorthand for "emperor of the Holy Roman Empire" not corresponding to the historical style or title, i.
The elective monarchy of the kingdom of Germany goes back to the early 10th century, the election of Conrad I of Germany in following the death without issue of Louis the Child , the last Carolingian ruler of Germany.
Elections meant the kingship of Germany was only partially hereditary, unlike the kingship of France , although sovereignty frequently remained in a dynasty until there were no more male successors.
The process of an election meant that the prime candidate had to make concessions, by which the voters were kept on the side, which was known as Wahlkapitulationen electoral capitulation.
Conrad was elected by the German dukes , and it is not known precisely when the system of seven prince-electors was established.
The papal decree Venerabilem by Innocent III , addressed to Berthold V, Duke of Zähringen , establishes the election procedure by unnamed princes of the realm, reserving for the pope the right to approve of the candidates.
A letter of Pope Urban IV , in the context of the disputed vote of and the subsequent the interregnum , suggests that by " immemorial custom ", seven princes had the right to elect the King and future Emperor.
The seven prince-electors are named in the Golden Bull of Maximilian I Emperor — and his successors no longer travelled to Rome to be crowned as Emperor by the Pope.
This title was in use by all his uncrowned successors. Of his successors, only Charles V , the immediate one, received a papal coronation.
The Elector Palatine's seat was conferred on the Duke of Bavaria in , but in , in the wake of the Thirty Years' War , the Elector Palatine was restored, as the eighth elector.
Brunswick-Lüneburg was added as a ninth elector in The whole college was reshuffled in the German mediatization of , a mere three years before the dissolution of the Empire.
This list includes all 47 German monarchs crowned from Charlemagne until the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire — Several rulers were crowned King of the Romans King of Germany but not emperor, although they styled themselves thus, among whom were: Traditional historiography assumes a continuity between the Carolingian Empire and the Holy Roman Empire, while a modern convention takes the coronation of Otto I in as the starting point of the Holy Roman Empire although the term Sacrum Imperium Romanum was not in use before the 13th century.
While earlier Germanic and Italian monarchs had been crowned as Roman Emperors, the actual Holy Roman Empire is usually considered to have begun with the crowning of the Saxon king Otto I.
It was officially an elective position, though at times it ran in families, notably the four generations of the Salian dynasty in the 11th century.
From the end of the Salian dynasty through the middle 15th century, the Emperors drew from many different German dynasties, and it was rare for the throne to pass from father to son.
That changed with the ascension of the Austrian House of Habsburg , as an unbroken line of Habsburgs would hold the Imperial throne until the 18th century, later a cadet branch known as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine would likewise pass it from father to son until the abolition of the Empire in Notably, the Habsburgs also dispensed with the requirement that emperors be crowned by the pope before exercising their office.
Starting with Ferdinand I , all successive Emperors forwent the traditional coronation. Rudolf was not crowned emperor, nor were his successors Adolf and Albert.
The Emperor was crowned in a special ceremony, traditionally performed by the Pope in Rome. Without that coronation, no king, despite exercising all powers, could call himself Emperor.
Maximilian's successors adopted the same titulature, usually when they became the sole ruler of the Holy Roman Empire. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Redirected from Holy Roman Emperors. Not to be confused with Roman emperor. For the racehorse, see Holy Roman Emperor horse.
Double-headed Reichsadler used by the Habsburg emperors of the early modern period. Family tree of the German monarchs.
List of German monarchs. Coronation of the Holy Roman Emperor and Papal appointment. Holy Roman Empire portal. The Holy Roman Empire.
The Origins of Modern Germany. August , The HR Emperor, p. Retrieved from " https: Holy Roman Emperors Lists of monarchs German monarchs.
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In other projects Wikimedia Commons. Born on 11 January Aristocrat and military leader, brother-in-law of Gratian, who appointed him as emperor of the East.
From until his death sole Roman Emperor. Theodosius' eldest son Arcadius became emperor in the East while his younger son Honorius became emperor in the West.
Born on 10 April , the only son of Arcadius. Succeeded upon the death of his father. As a minor, the praetorian prefect Anthemius was regent in — He died in a riding accident.
Born on 19 January or One of the daughters of Arcadius. She reigned with her husband Marcian. A soldier and politician, he became emperor after being wed by the Augusta Pulcheria , sister of Theodosius II, following the latter's death.
Leonid dynasty — [ edit ] See also: Born in Dacia ca. He was the first emperor to be crowned by the Patriarch of Constantinople.
His reign was marked by the pacification of the Danube frontier and peace with Persia, which allowed him to intervene in the affairs of the western empire , supporting candidates for the throne and dispatching an expedition to recover Carthage from the Vandals in Initially a puppet of Aspar, Leo began promoting the Isaurians as a counterweight to Aspar's Goths, marrying his daughter Ariadne to the Isaurian leader Tarasicodissa Zeno.
With their support, in Aspar was murdered and Gothic power over the army was broken. He was raised to Caesar on 18 November Leo ascended the throne after the death of his Grandfather, on 19 January He crowned his father Zeno as co-emperor and effective regent on 10 November He died shortly after, on 10 November As the leader of Leo I's Isaurian soldiers, he rose to comes domesticorum , married the emperor's daughter Ariadne and took the name Zeno, and played a crucial role in the elimination of Aspar and his Goths.
He was named co-emperor by his son on 9 February , and became sole ruler upon the latter's death, but had to flee to his native country before Basiliscus in , regaining control of the capital in Zeno concluded peace with the Vandals , saw off challenges against him by Illus and Verina , and secured peace in the Balkans by enticing the Ostrogoths under Theodoric the Great to migrate to Italy.
Zeno's reign also saw the end of the western line of emperors. His pro- Monophysite stance made him unpopular and his promulgation of the Henotikon resulted in the Acacian Schism with the papacy.
General and brother-in-law of Leo I, he seized power from Zeno but was again deposed by him. He was nicknamed " Dikoros " Latin: Dicorus , because of his heterochromia.
Anastasius reformed the tax system and the Byzantine coinage and proved a frugal ruler, so that by the end of his reign he left a substantial surplus.
His Monophysite sympathies led to widespread opposition, most notably the Revolt of Vitalian and the Acacian Schism. His reign was also marked by the first Bulgar raids into the Balkans and by a war with Persia over the foundation of Dara.
Justinian dynasty — [ edit ] See also: Officer and commander of the Excubitors bodyguard under Anastasius I, he was elected by army and people upon the death of Anastasius I.
Nephew of Justin I, possibly raised to co-emperor on 1 April Succeeded on Justin I's death. Attempted to restore the western territories of the Empire, reconquering Italy, North Africa and parts of Spain.
Also responsible for the corpus juris civilis , or the "body of civil law," which is the foundation of law for many modern European nations.
Nephew of Justinian I, he seized the throne on the death of Justinian I with support of army and Senate. Became insane, hence in — under the regency of his wife Sophia , and in — under the regency of Tiberius Constantine.
Was named Caesar and regent in Succeeded on Justin II's death. Born in at Arabissus , Cappadocia. Became an official and later a general. Married the daughter of Tiberius II and succeeded him upon his death.
Named his son Theodosius as co-emperor in Deposed by Phocas and executed on 27 November at Chalcedon. Subaltern in the Balkan army, he led a rebellion that deposed Maurice.
Increasingly unpopular and tyrannical, he was deposed and executed by Heraclius. Heraclian dynasty — [ edit ] See also: Began a revolt against Phocas in and deposed him in October Brought the Byzantine-Sassanid War of — to successful conclusion but was unable to stop the Muslim conquest of Syria.
Officially replaced Latin with Greek as the language of administration. Born on 3 May as the eldest son of Heraclius by his first wife Fabia Eudokia.
Named co-emperor in , he succeeded to throne with his younger brother Heraklonas following the death of Heraclius. Died of tuberculosis, allegedly poisoned by Empress-dowager Martina.
Born in to Heraclius' second wife Martina , named co-emperor in Sole emperor after the death of Constantine III, under the regency of Martina, but was forced to name Constans II co-emperor by the army, and was deposed by the Senate in September Raised to co-emperor in summer after his father's death due to army pressure, he became sole emperor after the forced abdication of his uncle Heraklonas.
Baptized Heraclius, he reigned as Constantine. Moved his seat to Syracuse , where he was assassinated, possibly on the orders of Mizizios.
Born in , he succeeded following the murder of his father Constans II. Erroneously called "Constantine the Bearded" by historians through confusion with his father.
He called the Third Council of Constantinople which condemned the heresy of Monothelitism , repelled the First Arab Siege of Constantinople , and died of dysentery.
Born in , son of Constantine IV, he was named co-emperor in and became sole emperor upon Constantine IV's death.
Deposed by military revolt in , mutilated hence his surname and exiled to Cherson , whence he recovered his throne in Twenty Years' Anarchy — [ edit ] Main article: General from Isauria , he deposed Justinian II and was overthrown in another revolt in He was executed in February Admiral of Germanic origin, originally named Apsimar.
He rebelled against Leontios after a failed expedition. Reigned under the name of Tiberius until deposed by Justinian II in Executed in February Returned on the throne with Bulgar support.
Named son Tiberius as co-emperor in Deposed and killed by military revolt. A general of Armenian origin, he deposed Justinian II and was in turn overthrown by a revolt of the Opsician troops.
A bureaucrat and secretary under Philippikos, he was raised to the purple by the soldiers who overthrew Philippikos.
Deposed by another military revolt, he led an abortive attempt to regain the throne in and was killed. A fiscal official, he was proclaimed emperor by the rebellious Opsician troops.
Entered Constantinople in November Abdicated following the revolt of Leo the Isaurian and became a monk.
Isaurian dynasty — [ edit ] See also: Rose in rebellion and secured the throne in spring Co-emperor since , he succeeded upon his father's death.
After overcoming the usurpation of Artabasdos, he continued his father's iconoclastic policies and won several victories against the Arabs and the Bulgars.
He is given the surname "the Dung-named" by hostile later chroniclers. Led a revolt that secured Constantinople, but was defeated and deposed by Constantine V, who blinded and tonsured him.
Born on 25 January as the eldest son of Constantine V. Born in , the only child of Leo IV. Co-emperor in , sole emperor upon Leo's death in , until under the regency of his mother, Irene of Athens.
He was overthrown on Irene's orders, blinded and imprisoned, probably dying of his wounds shortly after. Regent for her son Constantine VI in —, she overthrew him in and became empress-regnant.
In she called the Second Council of Nicaea which condemned the practice of iconoclasm and restored the veneration of icons to Christian practice.
Deposed in a palace coup in , she was exiled and died on 9 August Nikephorian dynasty — [ edit ] Main article: Logothetes tou genikou general finance minister under Irene, led initially successful campaigns against the Bulgars but was killed at the Battle of Pliska.
Only son of Nikephoros I, crowned co-emperor in December Succeeded on his father's death; however, he had been heavily wounded at Pliska and left paralyzed.
He was forced to resign, and retired to a monastery where he died soon after. Son-in-law of Nikephoros I, he succeeded Staurakios on his abdication.
Resigned after the revolt under Leo the Armenian and retired to a monastery, where he died on 11 January Reigned with eldest son Theophylact as co-emperor.
General of Armenian origin, born c. He rebelled against Michael I and became emperor. Appointed his son Symbatios co-emperor under the name of Constantine on Christmas Murdered by a conspiracy led by Michael the Amorian.
Amorian dynasty — [ edit ] See also: Born in at Amorium , he became an army officer. A friend of Leo V, he was raised to high office but led the conspiracy that murdered him.
Survived the rebellion of Thomas the Slav , lost Crete to the Arabs and faced the beginning of the Muslim conquest of Sicily , reinforced iconoclasm.
Born in , as the only son of Michael II. Co-emperor since , he succeeded on his father's death. Born on 19 January , son of Theophilos, he succeeded on Theophilos' death.
Under the regency of his mother Theodora until , and under the effective control of his uncle Bardas in — Murdered by Basil the Macedonian.
A pleasure-loving ruler, he was nicknamed "the Drunkard" by later, pro-Basil chroniclers. Macedonian dynasty — [ edit ] See also: Born in the Theme of Macedonia ca.
He overthrew Michael and established the Macedonian dynasty. He led successful wars in the East against the Arabs and the Paulicians , and recovered southern Italy for the Empire.
His reign saw a height in Saracen Muslim naval raids, culminating in the Sack of Thessalonica , and was marked by unsuccessful wars against the Bulgarians under Simeon I.
Son of Basil I, Alexander was born in and raised to co-emperor in Sidelined by Leo VI, Alexander dismissed his brother's principal aides on his accession.
He died of exhaustion after a polo game. His early reign was dominated by successive regencies, first by his mother, Zoe Karbonopsina , and Patriarch Nicholas Mystikos , and from by the admiral Romanos Lekapenos, who wedded his daughter to Constantine and was crowned senior emperor in Constantine was sidelined during the Lekapenos regime, but asserted his control by deposing Romanos's sons in early His reign was marked by struggles with Sayf al-Dawla in the East and an unsuccessful campaign against Crete, and pro-aristocratic policies that saw a partial reversal of Lekapenos' legislation against the dynatoi.
He is notable for his promotion of the " Macedonian Renaissance ", sponsoring encyclopaedic works and histories.
He was a prolific writer himself, best remembered for the manuals on statecraft De administrando imperio and ceremonies De ceremoniis he compiled for his son, Romanos II.
After becoming the emperor's father-in-law, he successively assumed higher offices until he crowned himself senior emperor.
His reign was marked by the end of warfare with Bulgaria and the great conquests of John Kourkouas in the East. Romanos promoted his sons Christopher , Stephen and Constantine as co-emperors over Constantine VII, but was himself overthrown by the latter two and confined to an island as a monk.
He died there on 15 June The only surviving son of Constantine VII, he was born on 15 March and succeeded his father on the latter's death.
He ruled until his own death, although the government was led mostly by the eunuch Joseph Bringas. His reign was marked by successful warfare in the East against Sayf al-Dawla and the recovery of Crete by general Nikephoros Phokas.
The most successful general of his generation, Nikephoros II was born ca. Throughout his reign he led campaigns in the East, conquering much of Syria.
He was murdered by his nephew and one-time associate John Tzimiskes. Nephew of Nikephoros Phokas, Tzimiskes was born ca.
A successful general, he fell out with his uncle and led a conspiracy of disgruntled generals who murdered him. Tzimiskes succeeded Nikephoros as emperor and regent for the young sons of Romanos II.
As ruler, Tzimiskes crushed the Rus' in Bulgaria and ended the Bulgarian tsardom before going on to campaign in the East, where he died. Eldest son of Romanos II, Basil was born in The first decade of his reign was marked by rivalry with the powerful Basil Lekapenos , an unsuccessful war against Bulgaria, and rebellions by generals in Asia Minor.
Basil solidified his position through a marriage alliance with Vladimir I of Kiev , and after suppressing the revolts, he embarked on his conquest of Bulgaria.
Bulgaria was finally subdued in after over 20 years of war, interrupted only by sporadic warfare in Syria against the Fatimids. Basil also expanded Byzantine control over most of Armenia.
His reign is widely considered as the apogee of medieval Byzantium. During the rule of Basil II, he spent his time in idle pleasure.
During his short reign he was an indifferent ruler, easily influenced by his courtiers and suspicious of plots to depose him, especially among the military aristocracy, many of whom were blinded and exiled.
On his deathbed, he chose Romanos Argyros as husband for his daughter Zoe. The daughter of Constantine VIII, she succeeded on her father's death, as the only surviving member of the Macedonian dynasty, along with her sister Theodora.
Born in , the elderly aristocrat Romanos was chosen by Constantine VIII on his deathbed as Zoe's husband and succeeded on the throne after Constantine's death a few days later.
Born in , he became a lover of Zoe even while Romanos III was alive, and succeeded him upon his death as her husband and emperor.
Aided by his older brother, the eunuch John the Orphanotrophos , his reign was moderately successful against internal rebellions, but his attempt to recover Sicily failed.
He died after a long illness. Born in , he was the nephew and adopted son of Michael IV. During his reign he tried to sideline Zoe, but a popular revolt forced him to restore her as empress on 19 April , along with her sister Theodora.
He was deposed the next day, castrated and tonsured, dying on 24 August The younger sister of Zoe, born in , she was raised as co-ruler on 19 April After Zoe died in and Constantine in , Theodora assumed full governance of the Empire and reigned until her death.
She nominated Michael VI as her successor. Constantine supported the mercantile classes and favoured the company of intellectuals, thereby alienating the military aristocracy.
A pleasure-loving ruler, he lived an extravagant life with his favourite mistresses and endowed a number of monasteries, chiefly the Nea Moni of Chios and the Mangana Monastery.
A court bureaucrat and stratiotikos logothetes hence his first sobriquet. Deposed by military revolt under Isaac Komnenos, he retired to a monastery where he died in Komnenid dynasty — [ edit ] See also: A successful general, he rose in revolt leading the eastern armies and was declared Emperor; he was recognized after the abdication of Michael VI on 31 August He resigned in and died c.
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